Here are the similarities and differences between the four types of cameras used for still photography.
DSLR and mirrorless cameras allow you to control things manually, whereas compact and phone cameras are mostly automatic.
DSLR and mirrorless cameras allow you to change lenses, but mirrorless cameras are lighter and less bulky and have an electronic viewfinder (EVF). EVFs give you a more accurate depiction of the scene you're shooting.
Compact cameras have a larger sensor than phone cameras which means better image quality. But phones have more advanced computers, which makes up for their smaller sensors.
I use a phone for casual photos and a mirrorless for everything else.